Access to the sea was possible through the Kaveri River. Capitalizing on a war between the Pallavas and the Pandyas, Vijayalaya captured Thanjavur and established the city as the Chola capital.
His successor Aditya I reign c. It is unclear if the Chola navy was involved in significant action during these campaigns. The Tranzacționând un robot pe forturi navy was significantly strengthened during the reign of Aditya I 's son, Parantanka I reign. Parantaka continued his father's campaigns to the south, and captured the Pandya capital of Madurai in CE, and later overthrew the Pandya king, Maravarman Rajasinha IIIinflicting a final defeat on a combined army of the Pandyas and their Sri Lankan allies at the Battle of Vellore.
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Following the pacification of Pandya territories, Parantaka embarked on the first significant naval campaign in the Medieval Chola period, a punitive invasion of Ceylon, annexing northern Ceylon.
Internal dissension led to a resurgence of the Pandyas, and an increasingly tenuous hold on Chola territories in Ceylon. Sundara Chola's heir-apparent, Aditya II was assassinated under mysterious circumstances, While unsuccessful in expanding the empire, Uttama managed to prevent territorial losses from the resurgent Rashtrakutas, as well as the Pandya-Ceylon alliance. He also initiated improvements to the armed forces, which were continued upon his death by his successor, Arulmozhi Varman, who would later be known by the reignal name Rajaraja Chola.
Rajaraja I and Rajendra I[ edit ] Imperial navy with blue-water capabilities[ edit ] Chola's empire and influence at the height of its power c. The evolution of combat ships and naval-architecture elsewhere played an important part in the development of the Pallava Navy. There were serious efforts in the period of the Pallava king Simhavishnu to control the piracy in South East Asia and to establish a Tamil friendly regime in the Malay peninsula.
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However, this effort was accomplished only three centuries later by the new Naval power of the Cholas. Rajaraja commissioned various foreigners Prominently, the Arabs and Chinese tranzacționând un robot pe forturi the naval building program. Rajendra led a successful expedition against the Sri Vijaya kingdom present day Indonesia and subdued Sailendra. Though there were friendly exchanges between the Sri Vijaya empire and the Chola Empire in preceding times including the construction of Chudamani Pagoda in Nagapattinamthe raid seems to have been motivated by commercial rather than political interests.
An inscription from Sirkazhidated to AD, mentions a naval officer called Araiyan Kadalkolamitantaan alias Amarakon Pallavaraiyan. He is mentioned as the Tandalnayagam of the Karaippadaiyilaar.
The term Karaippadaiyilaar means forces or army of the seashore and the title Tandalnayagam is similar to Dandanayaka and means commander of the forces.
The title Kadalkolamitantaan means "one who floated while the sea was engulfed". After some materials were utilized for local consumption, the remaining cargo along with Indian cargo was shipped to the Arabs. Up to the 5th century, the Arabs traded with Chinese directly using Sri Vijaya as a port of call and replenishment hub.
Realizing their potential, the Sri Vijaya empire began to encourage the sea piracy surrounding the area. Sea trade with China was virtually impossible without the loss of a third of the convoy for every voyage.
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A troubling and previously unseen development was attacks even on escorted convoys. Repeated diplomatic missions urged the Sri Vijaya empire to curb the piracy, with little effect. With the rise in piracy, and in the absence of Chinese commodity, the Arabs, on whom the Cholas were dependent of horses for their cavalry corps, began to demand higher prices for their trade, leading to a slew of reductions in the Chola army. In response, the Cholas embarked on their most significant naval campaign, the 1st Expedition of the Chola Navy into the Malay peninsula.
This embassy was a trading venture and was highly profitable to the visitors, who returned with '81, strings of copper coins in exchange for articles of tributes, including glass articles, and spices'.
The more interesting ones to have reached Chinese shores are: The famous Chola ship-designs employing independent water tranzacționând un robot pe forturi compartments in the hull of a ship. The mariner's compass The continuously shooting flamethrowers for naval warfare. The extent of the Chola empire necessitated that the Navy possess capabilities in riverine, littoral, and open-ocean naval combat, as well as large-scale expeditionary capabilities. A sophisticated and diversified force, the Chola Navy was able to carry out both combat and non-combat capabilities, including escorting trade convoys and friendly vessels, patrolling and anti-piracy interdiction, sabotage of enemy ships, naval combat in river basins, and land assault by establishing beachheads.
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Ports and fleets[ edit ] The oldest and most famous port in the Chola Empire was Poompuhar. In addition to these sea ports, there were many inland ports, such as Musuri and Worayur or Urayur and dry docks navigable from the sea along the Kaveri and Thamarabarani rivers which served commercial fleets and shipbuilding. In times of war, to facilitate mass production, ships were built inland and tranzacționând un robot pe forturi through the rivers to the Ocean.
The operational responsibilities tranzacționând un robot pe forturi conducted by Admirals of the Pirivu-Athipathy and Ganathipathy ranks. Chola Admirals commanded much respect and prestige in society, and were given a free hand in recruiting and training of sailors, engineers, oarsmen and marines. Recruitment was egalitarian; any citizen or even non-citizen could join the navy, although it is unclear if they would be assigned their preferred duties.
During the early period of the Chola Navy, preference was given to retired soldiers and sailors, their sons, and noblemen. However, this attitude changed in later days and many soldiers and sailors distinguished themselves, irrespective of rank and social class.
Rank structure[ edit ] Due to the presence of both Naval and Marine infantry elements, the Chola Navy used a hybrid rank structure, with dedicated naval ranks as well as army-derived ranks. Tandalnayagam : The Commander of the Navy, roughly, equivalent to Admiral of the fleet. The commander of a fleet, roughly equivalent to an Admiral Ganathipathy : The commander of a Taskforceroughly the equivalent of a Vice Admiral Mandalathipathy : The commander of a group, the equivalent of a Rear Admiral Jalathalathipathi : The commander of a flotilla or fleet squadronapproximately equivalent to a Commodore Kalapathy : The commanding officer of a ship, equivalent to Captain in modern navies.
Kaapu : Roughly performing the duties of the executive officer Investesc într- un proiect de internet weapons officer of a ship.
Eeitimaar : The officer in-charge of the marine boarding party. Equivalent to a captain or major.
Fleet Organization[ edit ] The Imperial Navy of the Medieval Cholas was composed of a multitude of forces under its command. In addition to the regular navy Kappalpadaithere were many auxiliary forces that could be used in naval combat as reserves or irregulars. Unlike many of its contemporaries, the Chola Navy was an autonomous service. The Army depended on the Naval-fleets for transportation and logistics. The navy also had a Marine Corps. Pearl fishermen were utilized as saboteurs to dive and disable enemy vessels by destroying or damaging the rudder.
This organisation became necessary after the conquest of Ceylon. The navy was organised into role-based squadrons and divisions, containing various ship types assigned for specific roles and home-ported at associated ports. A Ganam was typically the largest operational unit, consisting of between and ships of various types, and included a strong tranzacționând un robot pe forturi infantry presence.
During the reign of Rajaraja Chola I and Rajendra Chola Ithe main navy Kappalpadai comprised five fleets — three fleets of warships, two fleets of logistics ships, as well as transport ships to serve the needs of the Army.