Limitați proiectele de investiții și opțiunile reale

Evaluare Bibliografie Evaluarea se va face pe baza unui exercitiu de grup, ce va fi predat in ziua examenului. Exercitiul se va realiza in grupe de 5 studenti, repartizati in ordine alfabetica. Tema exercitiului: realizarea unui proiect de investitie straina directa pentru o companie prezenta pe piata din Romania pe o piata internationala. Nu exista restrictii cu privire la forma sau dimensiunea exercitiului predat in scris.

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Acesta va trebui sa acopere toate informatiile relevante pentru un manager pentru a putea implementa proiectul. Etapa 3: Implementarea unui proiect 1. Proiecte globale 1. Planning is everything.

limitați proiectele de investiții și opțiunile reale

Is this authority sufficient to carry out the project? Who is on team? Full-time or limitați proiectele de investiții și opțiunile reale What are their areas of expertise? Their roles? Who is the project sponsor? Is he or she at sufficiently high level in the organization to provide the project with support and a good chance of success?

1. Ce este investiția reală

Mission and objectives 3. Work scope 4. Planning basis: deliverables, requirements, constraints, approaches, assumptions, exclusions 5. Work breakdown structure 6. Organization development plan 7.

Resource plan 8. Procurement and logistics plan 9. Logic and schedules Cost estimates, budgets, and financial management Limitați proiectele de investiții și opțiunile reale analysis and contingency plan Quality and productivity plan Environmental, safety, and health protection plan Security plan Project planning, control, and administration plan Documentation and configuration management plan What does the project need to accomplish?

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By when? Who do we go to for help in making decisions? How do we check progress on a known issue?

limitați proiectele de investiții și opțiunile reale

Do all tasks have owners? How long will it take to do each task?

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Task 1 Subtask 1. Terminology for Different Levels tasks, sub-tasks, and work packages phases, entries, and activities. Organization by Deliverables or Phases deliverables or phases of the project life cycle. Level of Detail facilitates resource allocation and the assignment of individual responsibilities. Beware: micro-management OR tasks too large to manage effectively. Defining tasks so that their duration is between several days and a few months works well for most projects.

Is there a way to eliminate dependencies? Does estimated completion fit with project objectives?


Assumptions to create the network diagram: an activity is a task that must be performed and an event is a milestone marking the completion of one or more activities. Determine the proper sequence of the activities. Construct a network diagram. Estimate the time required for each activity. Determine the critical path. Update the PERT chart as the project progresses.

Identify Activities and Milestones The activities are the tasks required to complete the project. The milestones are the events marking the beginning and end of one or more activities.

It is helpful to list the tasks in a table that in later steps can be expanded to include information on sequence and duration. Determine Activity Sequence This step may be combined with the activity identification step since the activity sequence is evident for some tasks. Other tasks may require more analysis to determine the exact order in which they must be performed. Estimate Activity Times Weeks are a commonly used unit of time for activity completion, but any consistent unit of time can be used.

For each activity, the model usually includes three time estimates: Optimistic time - generally the shortest time in which the activity can be completed.

limitați proiectele de investiții și opțiunile reale

Most likely time - the completion time having the highest probability. Note that this time is different from the expected time.

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Pessimistic time - the longest time that an activity might require. Three standard deviations from the mean is commonly used for câștiguri grele, dar foarte profitabile pe internet pessimistic time.

PERT assumes a beta probability distribution for the time estimates. The critical path determines the total calendar time required for the project. If activities outside the critical path speed up or slow down within limitsthe total project time does not change.

The amount of time that a non-critical path activity can be delayed without delaying the project is referred to as slack time.

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The earliest start and finish times of each activity are determined by working forward through the network and determining the earliest time at which an activity can start and finish considering its predecessor activities. The latest start and finish times are the latest times that an activity can start and finish without delaying the project. LS and LF are found by working backward through the network. The difference in the latest and earliest finish of each activity is limitați proiectele de investiții și opțiunile reale activity's slack.

The critical path then is the path through the network in which none of the activities have slack. Given this variance, one can calculate the probability that the project will be completed by a certain date assuming a normal probability distribution for the critical path.

The normal distribution assumption holds if the number of activities in the path is large enough for the central limit theorem to be applied. Since the critical path determines the completion limitați proiectele de investiții și opțiunile reale of the project, the project can be accelerated by adding the resources required to decrease the time for the activities in the critical path.

Such a shortening of the project sometimes is referred to as project crashing. As the project unfolds, the estimated times can be replaced with actual times. In cases where there are delays, additional resources may be needed to stay on schedule and the PERT chart may be modified to reflect the new situation.

limitați proiectele de investiții și opțiunile reale

Probability of completion before a specified date. The critical path activities that directly impact the completion time. The activities that have slack time and that can lend resources to critical path activities.

Activity start and end dates.

Limitations The activity time estimates - subjective and depend on judgement. Even if the activity times are well-estimated, PERT assumes a beta distribution for these time estimates, but the actual distribution may be different.

Even if the beta distribution assumption holds, PERT assumes that the probability distribution of the project completion time is the same as the that of the critical path.

Because other paths can become the critical path if their associated activities are delayed, PERT consistently underestimates the expected project completion time.

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The underestimation of the project completion time due to alternate paths becoming critical is perhaps the most serious of these issues. To overcome this limitation, Monte Carlo simulations can be performed on the network to eliminate this optimistic bias in the expected project completion time. Should we make adjustments to scope, schedule, or resources?